Here in the U.S. bacon from the loin is called Canadian bacon, in Canada it is called Back bacon. But on this side of the pond we trim almost if not all surface fat off. Bacon from the pork shoulder is call Hillbilly or Buckboard bacon, I believe you call the same bacon Cottage bacon. Beef bacon, comes from the same area of a cow, that belly bacon comes from a pig. The name of the cut is call a beef plate before it is cured.
Here is a popular cured pork belly recipe on this board; Maple Bacon
You question on curing is too general, and there may be slight differenced on how to cure a particular cut of meat. If you can get access to the Recipe Site
, and look in the Bacon & Other Cured Meat sections you will find a few recipes. Also you can search this forum for the particular type of bacon you want to make. I do not use long curing times. I generally use 4 - 7 days; depending on what I'm curing and how thick it is. When curing with nitrites, it is much faster than the curing times when nitrates were used. As far as refrigerator temperatures, 3°C (38°F) - 4°C (40°F) would be ideal. Some sources state you can go as low as 2°C (36°F).